Located in Magelang, Central Java province, Borobudur Temple is the largest Buddhist temple or temple in the world. In addition, Borobudur Temple is also one of the largest Buddhist monuments in the world. Because of its splendor and majesty, the temple was built in the 8th century has been designated by UNESCO as one of its cultural heritage.
Borobudur Temple was built during the reign of the Syailendra dynasty, founded by Mahayana Buddhists during the reign of the Syailendra dynasty.
The history of the establishment of Borobudur Temple was built in the 8th century. The origin of the Borobudur temple is still shrouded in mystery regarding who the founder of the Borobudur temple was and the initial purpose of building this temple. Many stories and stories of the Borobudur temple are circulating are now known as local folk tales.
The estimated time for constructing the temple is based on a comparison between the type of script written on the closed foot of Karmawibhangga and the type of script used in the 8th and 9th-century royal inscriptions. This Borobudur temple was built during the reign of the Syailendra dynasty in Central Java, which coincided between the period 760 to 830 AD. The process of building the Borobudur temple is estimated to take 75 to 100 years more. The new Borobudur Temple was completely completed 100% during the reign of King Samaratungga in 825 AD.
Until now, it is still unknown who built the Borobudur temple. The Borobudur temple was built during the heyday of the Syailendra dynasty. It was unclear what religion the Borobudur temple was, whether it was Buddhism or Hinduism. It is known that the residents of the Syailendra dynasty were devout Mahayana Buddhists. However, based on the findings of the Sojomerto inscriptions, it is shown that at first, they may have been Shiva Hindus.
In that era, many Hindu and Buddhist temples were built on the Kedu plain, and there is also the sacred Shiwalingga temple near the Borobudur area, a Hindu temple. It is agreed that the Borobudur temple is a relic of the Buddhist kingdom in Indonesia.
Borobudur Temple itself was built simultaneously as the temples on the Prambanan Plain, although Borobudur was completed first, around 825 AD.
The beginning of the Borobudur temple was in the form of a single, very large stupa crowning its peak. Because a stupa that is too big and heavy is considered dangerous, then the stupa is dismantled and replaced into three rows of small stupas and one main stupa as it is now.
The construction of the Borobudur temple can be divided into 4 (four) stages, namely:
1. First stage
The first stage of the construction of the Borobudur temple was carried out by laying the foundation for the base of the temple, which is estimated to have started in 750 AD.
Borobudur was built on a natural hill, the top of the hill was levelled and the flat courtyard was expanded. Borobudur is made of andesite stone, but not entirely. Then the hillside was compacted and covered with a stone structure to resemble a shell surrounding the hill of earth. The rest of the hill is covered with stone structures layer by layer.
Initially, Borobudur was built with tiers like a pyramid design. Still, the arrangement was changed and instead built the first three steps that cover the original structure of the modified pyramid.
2. Second stage
In the second stage of construction, not much development was carried out, only the addition of two square steps, a balustrade and one circular step. On it immediately built a single, very large stupa.
3. Third stage
In the third stage of development there was a change in the design of the building, namely the upper circular steps with a single large main stupa were dismantled and replaced with three circular steps. Then smaller stupas were built in a circle on this terraced courtyard with a large main stupa in the middle.
The foundation of the temple was also slightly widened and an additional leg was built that encloses the original leg and at the same time covers the Karmawibhangga relief. The changes to the large stupa were made because the stupa was too big and heavy, so three smaller stupas and one main stupa were replaced.
4. Fourth stage
In the fourth or final stage, the construction is carried out with minor changes and finishing. Minor changes include improvements to the relief, the addition of the outer balustrade, changes to the stairs and arches over the gate and widening the toe.
After minor changes were completed, the Borobudur temple was completed. and in the end the Borobudur Temple is estimated to be completely completed around the year 850 AD.
So that’s an explanation of the brief history of the Borobudur temple. Borobudur temple tourism is one of the most visited tourist attractions in Indonesia and can attract local and foreign tourists.
Whether your trips take you to a long stroll on beaches, delicious cuisines, relaxing spas and resorts or urban attractions, extra research will give you the best experience for your visit. Get to know more about Borobudur by visiting Wonderful Indonesia.